Tag Archives: engagement

Tying Together Backwards Design, Self Marking and Criterion Referencing for effective teaching

You may have heard of the concept of Backwards Design before. Often associated with Grant Wiggins, the concept basically states ‘Work out what you want your students to know, then design your lessons with that end in mind.’ Pretty simple, and self explanatory. But the question I had on my recent placement was ‘How can I do this practically, and how can I effectively guide students through the learning process and offer useful feedback along the way?’

My ‘design brief’ (as specified by the Maths department) was to use the year 9  Australian Curriculum mathematics textbook and, over 4 weeks, cover all of the content in the chapter on Linear Equations and Algebra. But I was keen to make this more explicit for students.

Backwards Design

I had been inspired by Sarah Hagan’s work on ‘I Can’ sheets so wanted to tie in these ‘I Can’ sheets with the idea of backwards design.

I surveyed the chapter, looking for a good way to organise this information, and I found that each of the worked examples was teaching a unique competency (or an important but incremental advancement of a pre-taught competency), and they were well labelled. Here’s an example:Screen Shot 2015-06-22 at 8.17.35 am

(Source, textbook)

So I took these competencies and constructed an ‘I can’ sheet that I distributed to students on day 1 of my placement. The ‘I can’ sentence from the above example was ‘I can substitute values into expressions and evaluate’.

In the above ‘I can’ sheet the ‘My pg.’ column was designed as a place for students to write the page number in their book that corresponds to that ‘I can’ statement. For example, if they stuck these two sheets into their book and began numbering straight after these two sheets then the first lesson, covering example 1 (E1) would be on page 1, so they would write a ‘1’ in the My pg. column. The space ‘Key points’ was for the students to write their own key points at the end of every lesson. The Tinycc link took students to videos of the content that I made (I hope to upload these videos to youtube in the near future).

So that was the backwards design, now it was time to tie it into assessment.

I put together a pre-test for the unit. This pre-test assessed students from E1 to E11, inclusive*. And each of the questions was numbered to do so (as can be seen below). This test was administered by my mentor prior to my actual placement and I was able to pick the tests up and mark them to get an idea of where each of the students was at even before I entered my teaching role. I didn’t return these tests to students and told them explicitly ‘The pre-test was about me working out where you guys are at the moment and helps me identify misconceptions so I can directly address them when I introduce the content. Your mark doesn’t matter, what matters is what the test told me about how each of you are currently thinking about this maths’.

Now, the goal of the backwards design was to show students where we were going in terms of content, and give them a clear roadmap of the stops along the way. The goal of assessment was to help me (pre-test) and them (mid-unit test) to see how they were tracking along this path.
My placement was 4 weeks long and at the 2 week mark students were given a mid-unit test. Little did they know that this mid-unit test was EXACTLY THE SAME as the pre-unit test! (one of the benefits of not returning their pre-test ; ) so it gave me a perfect picture of how each of them had progressed.

But, as mentioned, I was very keen to help the students become evaluators of their own learning. To do this, I got them to self-mark. Here’s the process…

Criterion Referencing and Self Marking

I printed out the mid-unit tests (which I referred to as the ‘mid-unit checkup’) double sided on an A4 sheet (one sheet). What this allowed me to do was give students the sheets then collect them up and run them as a batch through the photocopier, giving me both their original and a photocopied version. I then marked the photocopied version so that I had the marks myself and, in the following lesson, I handed back the unmarked original to students, stapled together to two other sheets.

The first sheet stapled behind the original mid-unit test was a set of clearly worked solutions, the second sheet was the following…

For each of the students I filled out the ‘Based on pre-test’ column with either a tick, arrow, or cross (feel free to read instructions on the above sheet so that this makes sense), I then encouraged students to fill out the ‘Based on mid-unit check’ column in the same fashion.
Screen Shot 2015-06-24 at 8.19.06 am
This did a couple of things. Firstly, it enable students to link the competencies to questions, reinforcing what metalanguage such as ‘common factors’ and ‘collecting like terms’ meant. Secondly, it showed them the areas that they still needed to work on. Equally importantly, it showed students how they had progressed, they were able to say things like ‘Great, on the pre-test I couldn’t simply by by collecting like terms, but now I can!’, this was a real plus.
The thing that I really appreciated was the ability to generate a graph of class average results from the pre and mid-unit tests. I then showed this to the class.
Screen Shot 2015-06-25 at 8.04.33 am

This graph really excited students. Students were able to celebrate the progress that they had collectively made, and to identify what they still needed to work on. Students even noticed that for E1, which was ‘write algebraic expressions for word problems’ the class had actually gone backwards! This prompted conversation and allowed us to talk about how this was the first thing we covered in the unit, and provided an opportunity to to re-visit the concept of the forgetting curve that I’d introduced them to earlier.


I was really happy with how this approach came off. I saw marked increases in engagement from students. Most importantly, they totally ‘got it’. Student feedback alluded to the fact that students gained a greater understanding of where they were, and what they needed to work on. Here is what some of the students had to say about it (from a feedback form that I handed out on my final day of placement).

Next Time…

Next time I would like to improve upon this method by keeping the students’ ‘I Can…’ sheets all in one place, and preferably in a digital form, so that they can’t get lost and both students and I can access them from home, I’m thinking google spreadsheets for this but I’ll continue to consider options. This would allow them to take greater charge and track their own progress through the formative, mid-unit, and summative assessments.

I’m happy with how this approach went and I look forward to refining this approach when I’m next in the classroom.

The image below shows the class distribution of score in the pre-and post tests. I calculated my ‘effect size’ based on this information and was very pleased with the result : )

First Placement Effect Size

*I now think that it would be worth considering giving students a pre-test that contained ALL of the content from the unit (i.e., Example 1 to Example 21). This is because 1: It would have given them a better idea of the answer to the question ‘where are we going’, 2: it would have given some of the students opportunities to problem solve and try to work out for themselves how to do it and 3: I recently attended a lecture by Patrick Griffin in which he talked about how students shouldn’t EVER be getting 100% on tests because that doesn’t actually give you accurate information on where they are up to, it only tells you what level of achievement they are can perform higher than! Some students did get very close to 100% on this pre-test. But it is important to acknowledge that for these students I hadn’t had the time to build the culture of ‘have a go’ so some were even reluctant to attempt the pre-test, not quite understanding why they should be tested on something they haven’t even been taught yet. Making the pre-test longer and harder by including all content from the unit to be taught could have been overwhelming for some students.

Behaviour Management, a PD with a Punch

May 11, 2015

Screen Shot 2015-05-12 at 8.45.15 pmI just came back from a ‘PD in the Pub’ on behaviour management and run by Glen Pearsall. It was well timed, in terms of student behaviour, today was probably the most challenging placement day that I’ve had so far in my first teacher training placement. I was hungry for advice.

Two new words that I hadn’t heard of before…

  • Group Praise
  • Cross Praise

The main message that I took away from the presentation was the importance of affirming and acknowledging good behaviour and the power that that has to improve student engagement. That’s really captured in these two approaches.

Group Praise: What’s the opposite of going up to the kid who isn’t working and saying ‘Hey John, I can see you’re not doing any work, can you do some?!’. Well, it’s acknowledging the good work of other students in the class. ‘I can see that you guys have gotten started, that’s excellent’, ‘And you girls over the back, I like how you’re using those tabs at the back of the book to ensure you’re checking your answers.’. Glen emphasised how ‘everyone wants praise’ and that students will often return to task if you are dishing out praise around them. Apparently Raymond Lewis found that this works in 24% of cases (I did a google but wasn’t able to find this specific reference).

Cross Praise: This is really a variation on Group Praise, and is a bit more targeted. The basic idea is that you find a student that is working well and who is in the proximity of your target student (the one who is disengaged) and you stand so that your target student is roughly between the two of you, then you praise the working student specifically for the great work that they’re doing. Glen shared the anecdote of when one of his student teachers was searching for a hard working student to leverage off, and in the end had to resort to shouting praise across the room because the only student who seemed engaged with their work was at the far corner!

To keep track of how effectively you’re deploying these kinds of techniques it was suggested that teachers could try out using a ‘Command and Affirmation Chart’, i.e., just fold a piece of paper a couple of times, hold it in your hand, and mark on one side whenever you make a command, and on the other whenever you offer affirmation. Check it at the end of class to see what your ratio is like.

Another theme that jumped out to me was how to use your presence to manage behaviour, but without engaging in a confrontation with a student. Glen mentioned ‘Side Approach‘, i.e., when you’re approaching a student, don’t come straight on and challenge them, face a bit side on, be there, but don’t be challenging. Engaging the ego can lead to uncomfortable stand-offs that are best avoided. Glen coupled this body language advice with the suggestion to use ‘thank you’ in the place of ‘please’. ‘Please sounds kind of like you’re pleading.’, he suggested, ‘Thank you conveys the expectation of compliance.’

He offered some good turns of phrase to help diffuse those annoying and provocative questions that students can ask: Things like ‘That’s not the issue right now‘, or ‘Nevertheless‘, (I asked you to continue with your work)’, which he suggested could be used interchangeably. (I wish I’d had this advice when I went into the classroom at the start of this teacher training block placement, I had no techniques for fending off the seemingly endless questions on which football team I supported and other non-math-related topics).

May 12, 2015

I managed to use two (and a half) of the techniques from yesterday’s session in the class today. The first was the ‘That’s not the issue right now’ line. Super handy when I was up at the board highlighting a few summary points for the class prior to Friday’s test. I don’t remember the question now, but it was off topic. The second was using ‘Thank you’ instead of ‘Please’. I routinely have to ask students to shut their computers once I’ve started talking. Keeping them half open is their little rebellion every time the class starts. I used to say ‘Please shut your computer’, today I said ‘Shut your computer, Thank you!’ (it worked, and much quicker than usual : ) 

The ‘half’ that I referred to in the previous paragraph was using cross praise. It wasn’t directly across an off-task student, but I did have it in mind. And I was a lot more aware of my command:affirmation ratio today, and put in extra effort to congratulate those quiet students who are always on task. Yesterdays session made me aware of the tendency to take the regular on-task behaviour of these quiet achievers for granted, I’m glad I was reminded to congratulate them on their continued effort.

Giving affirmation, Cross praise, Thank you instead of please. That’s three good points taken from the PD and brought, at least somewhat, into the classroom the following day. Now it’s just a matter of making them a habit. I look forward to exploring some of Glenn’s books in the near future and delving deeper into this core teacher competency of behaviour management.

One approach to introducing cold calling to the classroom

After reading Glen Pearsall’s Top 10 Strategic Questions for Teachers (concise, free ebook) recently I was really inspired to introduce cold calling into the classroom. I had also wanted to incorporate spaced repetition into my class as well, so I thought it would be a good opportunity to kill two birds with one stone. (note: I’ve just started in my teacher training placement school, I’ve taught 3 lessons there in previous weeks but today was the first day of a month taking two year 9 math classes full time).

The way I thought I’d implement cold calling, to use pop sticks with the student’s names on them, was inspired by watching Dylan William’s ‘The Classroom Experiment‘, but I was afraid of making kids feel too put on the spot by the questioning. How to scaffold their participation?

The first student question I wanted to pre-empt was, ‘Why are we doing this spaced repetition stuff?’ (I didn’t actually use that term, I’ve called it ‘Micro-revision’). I addressed that by showing them the following clip.

I asked students what they’d learned from the clip, and if anything surprised them. I then mentioned that at the start of every class from now on we’ll be doing ‘micro revision’, 3 questions to jog our memory on previous topics.

Then, to address fear of making mistakes and a feeling of being put on the spot, I showed this clip from Jo Boaler.

I then said, ‘remember those coloured pop sticks you wrote your names on the other day?’ (Last Friday I had asked them to write their name on a coloured pop stick and used them as exit cards). ‘Well, for each question on the micro-revisions, I’m going to be using the sticks to select someone to share their thinking with the class.’ I then flashed up the following slide.Screen Shot 2015-04-20 at 6.11.05 pm

Then we got stuck in, and I revealed the first 3 micro-revision question (I also added in a challenge question in-case any of the students were streaming ahead. I stated that I wouldn’t be going through that one with the whole class). I watched the class and walked around to gauge when most of them had done about as much as they were going to.

I had a few questions planned, 1: What is this question asking us to do? What does it relate to that we’ve learned before? (More on metacognitive questioning and practices here), 2: Why did you do that?, i.e., just basically get them to justify their mathematical thinking. I also encouraged them to use correct terminology. Then… the moment of truth!

Screen Shot 2015-04-20 at 6.25.21 pmThe first student I asked said “I didn’t do it”. I replied “That’s ok, if you were going to do it now, how would you do it?”, he went right ahead and solved it in front of the class (him talking, me writing on the board). The second student was really happy and excited to share as well, and the third student even used the terms ‘numerator’ and ‘denominator’ in their answer which blew me away! I’ll also note that I was careful not to say ‘What’s the answer?’ but instead used the two questions outline above along with ‘Can you share with us how you approached this question?’. The emphasis was on sharing approaches, not on answers.

In closing, I was really happy with how the whole exercise came off, and I look forward to keeping up with the micro-revisions. I’ve also just had the thought of making Fridays ‘Feedback Fridays’, where I’ll give them five questions on the micro-revision and ask them all to hand in their answers so I can get a more clear picture of how each student is doing (That’s ‘Formative Feedback Fridays’ in teacher lingo ; ), and to write on the back of the sheet any feedback that they have on my teaching.


Taking Care of Business – Identifying Your Motivational Weak Points and How to Address them

It’s time to get better at Taking Care of Business!

For many people, managing motivation in order to Take Care of Business (TCB) is an ongoing challenge throughout life. The goal of this post is to help you understand and name the factors that are influencing your motivation. Once you learn to identify your own motivational weak points, you’ll be empowered to address them in a targeted way.

This article is based on findings from a psychological paper entitled:

The nature of procrastination: A meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure. Steel, Piers. Psychological Bulletin, Vol 133(1), Jan 2007, 65-94. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.65

The paper can be found in full here and a good summary of it is available in this LessWrong article. In short, Steel came up with what he calls ‘the procrastination equation’.*

Motivation Equation (my terminology)

Steel’s research identified there are four main things that effect how motivated you are to do any given task. I remember them as the three things you need to address in order to Take Care of Business (TCB). These factors are:

Let’s address each of them in turn. For each, I’ll briefly comment on how I address each of them and will provide links to a whole host of methods that people find useful.

*Please note: I have changed the terminology used in the original paper in order to make it more easy to remember. In the following I wrap Time Sensitivity and Deadline up into one because they’re only relevant when viewed as a pair.

Time Sensitivity and Deadline

Are you the kind of person who appears to have a remarkable ability to not do things until the last minute? Maybe you don’t manage to start assignments till 4am the night before it’s due, maybe you don’t even think about christmas shopping till Christmas eve. If this sounds like you perhaps your motivation weak point is your time sensitivity. People with low time sensitivity don’t feel much of a sense of urgency about things. Time Sensitivity combines with how far away the Deadline is to influence motivation. If your time sensitivity is low, and the deadline is far away, your motivation is likely to be pretty low.

Top Tip for managing your Time Sensitivity and Deadlines
. There’s one key thing that, if you learn to properly take advantage of it, will help you overcome your Time Sensitivity.

sitivity weakness: The Power of Habit!  In the Ted Talk below Charles Duhigg introduces us to one of the most powerful psychological drivers that we can learn to harness, the Cue-Reward loop. Check out the 15 minute talk to unlock your power of habit.

(if you’re viewing this in email the video can be seen here)

More info:
Here’s how the website LessWrong suggests you deal with a low Time Sensitivity (they call it impusliveness)
Here’s some more good tips from AlexVermeer on Impulsiveness.

Care Factor

Motivation-Care Factor

Care factor relates to 2 types of caring. 1: Care about, 2: Care for. 1 relates to whether you ‘Care About’ the outcome. It’s likely that your care factor is very high for some outcomes (eg: staying alive) and maybe not as high for others (cleaning?). 2 relates to how much you ‘Care For’ the actions required to get to the outcome. Here are the possible combinations of these two Care factors and the possible/likely outcomes.

  • Low Care About, Low Care For: Maybe this is the case in your job or school. You don’t like it and you don’t think that what you’re doing has any value. See below these dot points for methods to address both your care about and your care for factors.
  • High Care About, Low Care For: Your motivation is probably pretty high, but you may start to feel weary as time goes on and you may burn out. This is the case for many teachers who care a lot about their students but are working in bad conditions. It’s also what leads to burnout for many activists how have a long time between successes
  • Low Care About, High Care For: Great, you enjoy doing the task itself! for example, you’ve just started to learn the piano and you’re enjoying your practice. Only problem with this combo is once you hit a bit of a challenge (as is inevitable on any learning journey) and maybe you’re not enjoying it so much anymore, you don’t care about the outcome enough to push through
  • High Care About, High Care For. Awesome, you’re well on your way to success : )

Top Tip for managing your Care About. Ultimately this is about linking what you’re trying to get motivated about to your life and what you want to achieve in it. This goal setting exercise can help you do this.

Top Tip for managing your Care For. Some times in life we come up against situations where we just have to do something that we don’t want to. But it’s important to remember that no matter what you’re doing, there is always the possibility to see the action in a more negative or in a more positive light. This video by Brendon Burchard addresses how you can train yourself to see situations more positively, and to recognise when you’re in a place of negative thoughts. See the bottom of this post for how I’ve applied this to get over some of my study obstacles.

More Info:
-Here’s how the website LessWrong suggests you deal with a low care factor (they call it ‘Value’)
Here’s some more good tips from Alex Vermeer on Value


Belief, like care factor, is also split into 2 main sub-categories. 1: ‘Belief that success is possible’ and 2: ‘Belief that that you taking action will lead to that success’. These two points are related and you need both of them satisfied in order to feel motivated to take action.

Believing that Success is Possible: ‘Belief that success is possible’ is in a large part dependent upon believing that you yourself are capable of achieving. There are three main pathways to self belief as outlined by Richard Shell in his book.(See kindle location 3166 of the book Springboard). These three pathways are:

  1. Someone you respect believes that ‘You Can Do It!-This is where amazing teachers come in and change lives for many students! An experiment that clearly proves this is Pygmalion in the Classroom.
  2. A Rite of Passage-ie: you overcome some obstacle and realise you’re actually capable of achieving greatness.
  3. You have Faith-Maybe you have a religion or positive thinking technique or you recite mantras or having a ‘lucky charm’ or something like that.

Top Tip for fostering belief that you can achieve. All three pathways to self-belief are open to you. I find that watching the 5 minute clip that I mentioned above, Pygmalion in the Classroom, to be incredibly inspiring. It helps to remind me that simply by changing expectations you change your chances of success. Ultimately, belief that you can get smarter and achieve is a question of mindset, if you’d like some more reinforcement after watching Pygmalianin the Classroom, check out this presentation that I put together on Mindset.

Believing that you taking action can lead to success: This is the crunch. And it’s a legitimate question “If I do this, will it actually make me any better”. In some scenarios it’s obvious that taking the action will lead to improvements but it others it isn’t that clear. At this point it’s super important to stress the importance of being strategic in how you spend your time practicing/taking action. This point opens this blog post up to the world of productivity/learning literature, but for now I’ll just keep it to a top tip.

Top Tip for believing that you taking action will lead to success. Be Strategic! The best way that I now of doing this is through the 5 step learning method of S.A.(U).L.T. This is the method that I use to learn efficiently and it enabled me to do well in my Economics and Physics degrees at University. I don’t think that I’m a genius by any stretch of the imagination, but I do think that I work hard and I work smart. I hope that the S.A.(U).L.T Learning process can help you to learn quickly and efficiently too.

More Info:
Here’s how the website LessWrong suggests you deal with a low level of belief (they call it expectancy)
Here’s some more god tips from Alex Vermeer on Expectancy
Josh Kaufman’s 4 step method of learning anything in 20 hours
Tim Ferriss’ fast learning approach as outlined in the book ‘The Four Hour Chef‘.

Ollie’s Methods

How do I address my own time sensitivity? I have one trick that I often use when I have low motivation because I feel like a test is a long way away. I look at past exams. This makes me aware of my knowledge gap (chances are I’ll see many of the questions and think ‘holy moly, I have no idea how to do this!) and motivates me to study straight away. For situations in life when I don’t have that “look at a test” option I’ll often self-impose a deadline. One recent example was when I wanted to learn about mindset, so I put my hand up to run a workshop on mindset at the University of Tasmania. Nothing like a deadline to get you motivated!

 How do I address my Care Factor? At times whilst doing my undergrad in physics my care factor was pretty low. Eg: “How does knowing anything about a quark ever going to affect my life???”. At times like these I’d sit down at my desk and lay my books out in front of me. I’d then close my eyes and force myself to smile and repeat over and over to myself “I love physics, I love learning, I can’t wait to work on these problems and learn all about quarks.”. This technique takes advantage of the fact that your body language shapes who you are and I found it incredibly helpful.
Another approach here is to address the ‘Care For’ element. If we develop mastery based goals rather than performance based goals  we’re in a better position to stay motivated over the long run. There are two clear examples of this in my life:
-When I started this blog the initial impetus was that I came to a realisation that being a successful and well respected academic/teacher/person these days  needs an online presence, so I set about to do that. I was spending a heap of time on twitter trying (relatively unsuccessfully) to get more followers and was trying to post every week on this site to keep things moving. Eventually I came to the realisation that I would enjoy things more if I didn’t pressure myself to post but instead posted when I felt like it and to use posts as a way to order and consolidate my own thinking. Since changing my outlook on posting, maintaining this blog has been much more enjoyable for me.
-The second example is running. I find that running to ‘look healthy and fit’ isn’t incredibly motivating for me. I used to try to get personal records but I found that the pressure of having to beat my previous PR was actually working as a de-motivator for me. I have started to run without a watch, I just head out of the house with my sneakers on and get moving and take in the view. If I feel like it I’ll really push myself, if I don’t I just coast. Either way, by focusing on making the task itself enjoyable I’ve made both my blogging and jogging more sustainable.

One last thing… For those in a position to decide how you spend the time, the other thing to do here is to really look in detail at what you’re doing and whether you’re truly following your passion. Maybe your care factor is low for a reason… maybe you really should be doing something else! Books like The 4-Hour Workweek and Springboard have really helped me to stay focused and on track.

How do I address Belief? I have a pretty strong sense of self belief, primarily through pathway 1 (parents believing in me). As such I’ve been motivated to explore the space of efficient learning and to really try to work out how that works for me. If I was to bullet point my approach to learning new things it would be as follows:

  • Work out what I want to do/learn
  • Try to find someone who’s done it before and ask how they did it
  • Next best thing to asking someone directly is to read about a successful person’s approach (If you find a book that looks like it’s going to cover the topic nicely, google the author with google’s video filter and you can often find a really concise summary that will work as a good primer for your brain before you read it, or instead if you’re really pressed for time)
  • Surround myself with other people with similar goals (eg: Every monday I hold a hot pot at my house for people learning mandarin and people learning english and we have a great time and keep each other motivated)
  • Once I’ve learnt something that’s important for me to retain to get to my ultimate goal (if it’s a learning project), I try to work out some method of remembering it. Probably a mnemonic or a rhyme or something. (see my series on cognition for more detail). And finally…
  • Practice! If the task is something academic then I’ll use Spaced Repetition Software to memorise it.


Motivation is a big one, and it’s something that for me seems to wax and wane throughout life. Hopefully by dissecting motivation and understanding it better, as this article has attempted to do, we’re all in a better position to keep our motivation high. Trying different techniques for motivation is something that I’m constantly reviewing and updating. It’s an exciting journey.

Here’s Alex Vermeer’s diagram encapsulating many of the pathways to get from low care factor, low belief or low time sensitivity to motivation!

 Alex Vermeer's guide to defeating procrastination


Dan Haesler on Engagement

Here’s some of Wot-I-Got out of Dan Haesler’s Presentation last night at the 3P’s Love Learning Conference. Dan spoke about engagement.


Is engagement really “To occupy the attention or efforts (of a person etc)” (Dictionary definition) or is it “The sense of living a life high in interest, curiosity and absorption. Engaged individuals pursue goals with determination and vitality.”

  • School engagement: The number of students who feel they “don’t belong” at school – they “aren’t happy”
    • 20% in Australia, 35% in Finland and Estonia, 40% in Korea.
    • Ian Shocker: Queensland Technology, “school connectedness is an even stronger predictor of wellbeing than attachment to parents”-world leader in school and youth depression
      • 2 questions for kids…
        • “do I feel able to be myself at school” (not talking about piercings, but values”
        • “Is there an adult in this organization that I can go to if I have a serious issue”
  • “The Hurry Child”-Phenomena
  • Gallup Poll results, 2013
    • 30% of year 5 Kids are Disengaged (of those who turn up)
    • 50% of year 12s are Disengaged
    • 1 in 3 kids have a sense of hope for their future

How to fix it?

  • Here’s a tip, don’t
  • Question: “Would kids turn up if they didn’t have to?”…”How can we create learning environments so they would come even if they didn’t have to?”.
  • Bottom line: Forget trying to engage kids in your class.  Intstead- engage them in their life, the world around them, their future.
  • Dan Pink: Drive. Engagement Models
    • At the centre is relationships. If you don’t have that going on, nothing will be going on. Builton the pillars of respect, trust, care
    • After relationships are established, consider “Autonomy”.  Here’s what can happen when we give students autonomy!
    • “Mastery” wanting to get better for the sake of getting better
    • “Purpose”, Why are we doing this?